Water, energy, and food (WEF) have complex interconnections. Water is required to produce energy, while energy is needed for water extraction, treatment, and distribution. The food sector requires water and energy to produce food products, while fertilizer and pesticide from farmland has a negative impact on water quality; however, biomass is a potential alternative energy source. Understanding these interconnections will help determine the developmental framework that connects all of the elements. Some global regions have implemented a variety of sustainable management concepts to manage the natural resources, however, mainly for an individual resource. Furthermore, various computer models have been developed to estimate the interdependency of each resource and to quantify future requirements of WEF; the limitations of current model have opened opportunities for development through addition of components and features such as feedback analysis, optimization, and visualization. We reviewed the literature to determine the present state of the WEF nexus, especially its global implementation and simulation model. We concluded that the involvement of stakeholders, integration of policies, and development of a nexus simulation model are required for successful implementation of the WEF nexus, which is an emerging issue for a sustainable resources management.
- Review study
- Simulation model
- Stakeholders involvement
- Sustainable development
- and food (WEF) nexus
- First received 13 October 2015.
- Accepted in revised form 22 October 2016.
- © IWA Publishing 2017