The Water Framework Directive (WFD) focuses on reduction of nutrients in individual water bodies. Innovative drainage filter technologies currently being tested in Denmark could facilitate nutrient reductions at the sub-river basins and catchment levels. The implementation strategy for these technologies, however, remains a challenge. Using both primary and secondary data, this paper presents an in-depth analysis of the role of these technologies in implementation of the WFD in Denmark. Concepts of impact assessment are used to identify the most suitable approach for incorporating these technologies into environmental measures based on a three-faceted policy instruments typology. A voluntary approach supported by investment subsidies, or incentives that could replace existing requirements is deemed more appropriate.
- Filter technologies
- Policy instruments
- River basin management plans
- Water quality
- First received 24 January 2016.
- Accepted in revised form 1 November 2016.
- © IWA Publishing 2017